A wing is a type of fin that produces liftwhile moving through air or some other fluid. As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoils.
A wing's aerodynamic efficiency is expressed as its lift-to-drag ratio. The lift a wing generates at a given speed and angle of attack can be one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total drag on the wing. A high lift-to-drag ratio requires a significantly smaller thrust to propel the wings through the air at sufficient lift.
Lifting structures used in water, include various foilsincluding hydrofoils. Hydrodynamics is the governing science, rather than aerodynamics. Applications of underwater foils occur in hydroplanessailboats and submarines. But in recent centuries the word's meaning has extended to include lift producing appendages of insectsbatspterosaursboomerangssome sail boats and aircraftor the inverted airfoil on a race car that generates a downward force to increase traction.
The design and analysis of the wings of aircraft is one of the principal applications of the science of aerodynamics Wings of si prostatite, which is a branch of fluid mechanics. The properties of the airflow around any moving object can — in principle — be found by solving the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics. However, except for simple geometries Wings of si prostatite equations are notoriously difficult to solve.
For a wing to produce "lift", it must be oriented at a suitable angle of attack relative to the flow of air past the wing. When this occurs the wing deflects the airflow downwards, "turning" the air as it passes Wings of si prostatite wing. Since the wing exerts a force on the air to change its direction, the air Wings of si prostatite exert a force on the wing, equal in size but opposite in direction. This force manifests itself as differing air pressures at different points on the surface of the wing.
A region of lower-than-normal air pressure is generated over the top surface of the wing, with a higher pressure on the bottom of the wing. See: airfoil These air pressure differences can be either measured directly using instrumentation, or can be calculated from the airspeed distribution using basic Wings of si prostatite principles —including Bernoulli's principlewhich relates changes in air speed to changes in air pressure.
The lower air pressure on the top of the wing generates a smaller downward force on the top of the wing than the upward force generated by the higher air pressure on the bottom of the wing. Hence, a net Wings of si prostatite force acts on the wing. This force is called the "lift" generated by the wing. The different velocities of the air passing by the wing, the air pressure differences, the change in direction of the airflow, and the lift on the wing are intrinsically one phenomenon.
It is, therefore, possible to calculate lift from any of Wings of si prostatite other three. For example, the lift can be calculated from the pressure differences, or from different velocities of the air above and below the wing, or from the total momentum change of the deflected air. Fluid dynamics offers other approaches to solving these problems—and all produce the same answers if done correctly. Given a particular wing and its velocity through the air, debates over which mathematical approach is the most convenient to use can be mistaken by novices as differences of opinion about the basic principles of Wings of si prostatite.
An airfoil American English or aerofoil British English is the shape of a wing, blade of a propellerrotoror turbineor sail as seen in cross-section. Wings with an asymmetrical cross section are the norm in subsonic flight. Wings of si prostatite with a symmetrical cross section can also generate lift by using a positive angle of attack to deflect air downward.
Symmetrical airfoils have higher stalling speeds than cambered airfoils of the same wing area  but are used in aerobatic aircraft [ citation needed ] as they provide practical performance whether the aircraft is upright or inverted.
Another example comes from sailboats, where the sail is a thin membrane with no path-length difference between one side and the other.
For flight speeds near the speed of sound transonic flightairfoils with complex asymmetrical shapes are used to minimize the drastic increase in drag Wings of si prostatite with airflow near the speed of sound. Aircraft wings may have various devices, such as flaps or slats that the Wings of si prostatite uses to modify the shape and surface area of the wing to change its operating characteristics in flight.
Wings Wings of si prostatite have other minor independent surfaces. Besides fixed-wing aircraftapplications for wing shapes include:. In nature, wings have evolved in insects, pterosaursdinosaurs birdsand mammals bats as a means of locomotion.
Various species of penguins and other flighted or flightless water birds such as aukscormorantsguillemotsshearwaterseider and scoter ducks and diving petrels are avid swimmers, and use their wings to propel through water.
Winged tree seeds that cause autorotation in descent. A laughing gullexhibiting the " gull wing " outline. InFrancis Rogallo invented a kite-like tensile wing supported by inflated or rigid struts, which ushered in new possibilities for aircraft. These two new branches of wings have been since extensively studied and applied in new branches of aircraft, especially altering the personal recreational aviation landscape.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Surface used for flight, for example by insects, birds, bats and airplanes. For other uses, see Wing disambiguation and Wings disambiguation. Main article: Lift force. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Retrieved The reaction force of the deflected air mass must then act on the wing to give it Wings of si prostatite equal and opposite upward component. Changing the velocity creates a net force on the body" "Lift from Flow Turning".
Laitone, Wind tunnel tests of wings at Reynolds numbers below 70Experiments in Fluids 23 This becomes exactly true in the absence of a mast—and clearly the presence of the mast is of no consequence in the generation of lift. Thus, the generation of lift does not require different distances around Wings of si prostatite upper and lower surfaces.
Anderson, Jr. Introduction to Flight 4th ed page The Golden Knights: The U. Army Parachute Team. Finslimbs and wings. Limb development Limb morphology digitigrade plantigrade unguligrade uniped biped facultative biped triped quadruped Arthropod Cephalopod Tetrapod dactyly Digit Webbed foot.
Flying and gliding animals Bat wing Bird wing keel skeleton feathers Insect wing Pterosaur wing Wingspan. Evolution of fish Evolution of tetrapods Evolution of birds Origin of birds Origin of avian flight Evolution of cetaceans Comparative anatomy Convergent evolution Analogous structures Homologous structures.
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